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Common Causes of Miscarriages

Miscarriage can occur for a variety of reasons, most of which are out of your control. It is more common early in pregnancy, with 8 out of 10 miscarriages occurring in the first three months. This type of pregnancy loss happens to a lot of folks. In reality, 10-20% of pregnancies result in a miscarriage. Despite the fact that miscarriage is frequent, it can be emotionally draining. “Spontaneous abortion” is the medical word for miscarriage.

Discover the reasons for miscarriage that can lead to pregnancy loss.  After a miscarriage, many couples wonder why? A miscarriage can be a traumatic experience with long-term emotional consequences. However, one of the most terrible elements of a miscarriage is the utter lack of understanding about why it occurred. While many couples blame themselves when they have a miscarriage, the fact is that they are most likely to blame for it. Here’s all you need to know about the common causes of miscarriages, as well as some prevention advice.

Common Causes of Miscarriage

It’s difficult to pinpoint the specific reason of a miscarriage, although it’s usually never due to the pregnant woman’s actions. Miscarriage is not caused by normal activities like sexual intercourse, exercise, working, or taking most medications. Minor injuries, such as falling, seldom result in a miscarriage. A genetic defect in the embryo, according to expert doctors, is the most prevalent cause of miscarriage. Thyroid diseases, diabetes, immunological disorders, drug misuse, and other causes can all contribute to the problem. Let’s find out in detail:

1) Chromosomal Abnormalities

According to the March of Dimes, up to 70% of first trimester losses and 20% of second trimester miscarriages are caused by a genetic defect in the foetus. The sperm and egg each bring 23 chromosomes together during fertilizations to form precisely matched pairs. This is a complicated process, and even a little hiccup can lead to a genetic or chromosomal anomaly.

2) Thyroid Disorders

Thyroid diseases, whether hypothyroidism (low thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (high thyroid), can cause infertility or repeated miscarriages. According to a trusted source, when a woman’s thyroid function is poor, her body tries to compensate by creating hormones that block ovulation. A thyroid that produces too many hormones, on the other hand, might interfere with estrogen’s capacity to do its function, making the uterus unsuitable for implantation or causing irregular uterine haemorrhage. 

3) Diabetes

“Women with diabetes should collaborate with their primary care physician or endocrinologist to achieve optimal sugar management,” adds the expert. “In the first trimester, uncontrolled insulin-dependent diabetes can raise the risk of miscarriage and also a markedly increased risk of major birth defects.”

4) Physical Complications

Physical issues with the mother are a less common reason of miscarriage, according to another expert, who adds that this generally happens in the second or third trimester. Some instances are as follows: 

  • Uterine fibroids can obstruct implantation or the fetus’s blood supply. 
  • A septum is an unusual uterine abnormality associated to miscarriage in certain women. 
  • Scar tissue in the uterus can form as a result of surgery or second-term abortions, and this scar tissue can prevent an egg from implanting properly and obstruct blood flow to the placenta.

5) Blood Clotting Disorders

Miscarriages caused by blood clotting diseases (such as Factor V Leiden) are less common than physical defects, although they do happen. 

6) Hormonal Imbalances

Sometimes a woman’s body doesn’t create enough progesterone, which is required for the uterine lining to nourish the foetus and the placenta to take root. “Normally, we would not screen until a woman has had numerous miscarriages, because that is not very common” says, Dr. Adarsh Somashekar, Chairman and CEO of Ovum Group of Hospitals, Medication may increase the chances of a second pregnancy being successful.

7) Using Drugs, Alcohol or Tobacco During Pregnancy

Some lifestyle choices, like as drug use, alcohol use during pregnancy, and smoking, have been linked to early miscarriage and pregnancy loss in the third trimester. Improving your health in the months leading up to your pregnancy may lower your chances of miscarriage. 

8) Immunological Disorders and Chronic Illness

Certain autoimmune illnesses, according to experts, may have a role in miscarriage, especially in cases of recurrent loss. Despite the fact that the specific function of immunologic variables in miscarriage is “complex,” according to the same doctor, the simplest explanation is that “the body simply does not accept the pregnancy.” 

According to some study, specific antibodies may be one of the most prevalent reasons of recurrent miscarriages.

Miscarriage Risk Factors

Other factors that may increase your risk of miscarriage include:

  • Listeria is a bacterium that may be found in raw eggs, undercooked meats, and unpasteurized dairy products
  • Trauma to the mother, such as a car accident 
  • Certain medications are prescribed. 
  • Maternal age is advanced (over 35) 
  • Lyme disease and Fifth disease are examples of infections. 
  • Increased short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide was linked to a greater chance of miscarriage, according to a research published in Fertility and Sterility in February 2019. 
  • During early pregnancy, a high fever (over 102 degrees) might be dangerous. 
  • Before the age of six weeks, a high core body temperature is the most harmful to the embryo.

What are the various forms of miscarriage?

Miscarriages come in a variety of forms:

  • You may experience vaginal bleeding and maybe minor cramping, but your cervix remains closed, indicating a threatened miscarriage. The bleeding stops half of the time, and your pregnancy continues normally. The other half of threatening miscarriages turns into unavoidable miscarriages, resulting in the loss of the pregnancy.
  • Miscarriage is unavoidable if you have increased bleeding and your cervix has opened. Your pregnancy will not be able to continue if this occurs.
  • Incomplete miscarriage – Some of the pregnancy tissue leaves the uterus while the rest remains within. It’s possible that you’ll require further treatment to get rid of any leftover tissue.
  • A complete miscarriage occurs when all of the pregnancy tissue leaves your uterus. In most cases, no additional therapy is required.
  • If you don’t experience any cramps or bleeding, it’s a missed miscarriage. Ultrasound, on the other hand, may reveal an embryo without a heartbeat or an empty pregnant sac with no embryo. The tissue will usually pass on its own, but you may need treatment.

Medicines or techniques used to treat miscarriage are remarkably similar to those used to treat abortion. During aspiration, a nurse or doctor inserts a small plastic tube into your uterus and uses mild suction to remove the pregnant tissue.

If miscarriages aren’t handled, they can be hazardous. If you see any signs or symptoms of a miscarriage, call your doctor straight away.

What are the signs and symptoms of a miscarriage?

Sometimes there are no signs or symptoms of a miscarriage, and you don’t find out until you have an ultrasound or no longer feel pregnant. There are usually indications and symptoms. They are as follows:

  • spotting or vaginal bleeding
  • terrible stomach ache
  • severe cramping

These symptoms can also be caused by situations that aren’t as bad as a miscarriage. But, just to be safe, if you believe you’re experiencing a miscarriage, visit your doctor straight away.

Diagnosis of a Miscarriage

To determine if you’ve had a miscarriage, the doctor will do the following tests:

  • They’ll look at your cervix to see whether it’s started to dilate. Sound waves are utilized in an ultrasound examination to search for a baby’s heartbeat.
  • The doctor will check for pregnancy hormones in your blood and compare them to prior levels using blood tests.
  • The doctor may send tissue from your miscarriage to a lab for confirmation if it has left your body. It can also exclude the potential that your symptoms are caused by anything else.
  • The doctor may prescribe these tests to evaluate your genes or those of your spouse if you’ve had two or more miscarriages.

What happens when a woman has a miscarriage?

Every woman’s miscarriage is unique, but there are some similar signs and symptoms.

Although not all miscarriages are physically unpleasant, the majority of women experience cramps. For some people, the cramps are really severe, while for others, they are mild (like a period or less). Vaginal bleeding is also frequent, as are huge blood clots up to the size of a lemon. Heavy miscarriage bleeding might be frightening or unexpected, but it’s typically nothing to worry about.

The bleeding and cramps might last a few minutes or several hours. The doctor can provide medication and offer you advice on how to cope with pain and cramping during your miscarriage.

Miscarriage, regardless of how quickly it occurs or how painful it is, can be distressing. Keep in touch with your doctor to let him or her know what’s up and how you’re feeling. Your doctor can tell you what’s typical and what isn’t, as well as provide you with options for emotional support if you need it.

After a miscarriage, how should I expect to feel?

There is no single way that everyone feels after a miscarriage. Disappointment, despair, astonishment, remorse, sadness, and relief are all possible feelings to experience – sometimes all at once. All of these emotions are completely natural and will pass with time.

Take care of yourself on a physical and emotional level, and allow yourself to grieve if you need to. When a woman has a miscarriage, she is likely to experience grief and despair. Surround yourself with caring and supporting friends who will allow you to cry and console you. If you have a spouse, they may also be mourning and experiencing a range of emotions.

Everyone takes a varied length of time to emotionally recover after a loss. Allow yourself as much time to grieve as you need. When they have someone to talk to who is encouraging, most individuals feel better. Know that you’re not alone, even if you don’t think you have anyone in your life to depend on. Your nurse or doctor can speak with you or refer you to a local counselor or support group. There is also a plethora of online support groups where you may interact with people going through similar experiences.

How to prevent a miscarriage?

There’s often nothing you can do to avoid a miscarriage. Simply concentrate on looking after yourself and your baby by seeking regular prenatal care.

  • Smoking, consuming alcohol, and using illegal drugs are all established miscarriage risk factors.
  • Take a multivitamin every day.
  • Caffeine use should be limited. According to a recent study, drinking more than two caffeinated beverages per day was linked to an increased chance of miscarriage.

If you have a chronic illness, check with your doctor to keep it under control. Ovum Hospital is a leading woman and child hospital in Bangalore. We have a team of highly skilled doctors who are expert in normal as well as high risk pregnancies.

How can the chances of miscarriage be lowered?

Miscarriage is often unavoidable, particularly when the cause is genetic abnormalities that aren’t compatible with life. Nonetheless, experts urge that you improve your health before you conceive in order to offer your pregnancy the best chance of success.

In general, it is recommended that women considering pregnancy see their OB-GYN to review chronic conditions and medications, start prenatal vitamins 2 to 3 months before trying to conceive, ensure that all of their vaccines are up to date, review their diet, and limit or eliminate alcohol and caffeine from their diets. Recreational drug users are encouraged to stop using them.

Keep in mind, however, that even if you followed all of this advice, you might not be able to avoid a miscarriage.

Complications after a miscarriage– 

Some women may experience a uterine infection. A septic miscarriage is another name for this. The following are signs and symptoms of a septic miscarriage:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Tenderness in the lower abdomen
  • Vaginal discharge with a foul odour

When can you try again after a miscarriage?

A dilatation and curette (D and C) of the uterus is planned if the loss was incomplete, if bleeding continues, or if an empty pregnant sac is discovered on ultrasound. This is a very modest surgical operation that clears the contents of the uterus of all products of conception under general anaesthesia. After this operation, most women will suffer vaginal bleeding for a few days until it stops. A mother will not ovulate or have a period as long as HcG is present in her body. In the majority of instances, it will take 10 days for her HcG levels to stabilize and her hormone levels to revert to pre-pregnancy levels. Many women will get their first period four to six weeks following a miscarriage, indicating that ovulation and normal fertility have returned.

Following a miscarriage, some doctors advise couples to attempt to conceive as soon as possible. They believe there is no benefit in waiting, and that in the vast majority of cases, there is no increased risk of miscarriage. Others argue that waiting three or four months, and allowing a few of monthly cycles to pass, might help “normalize” ovulation and menstruation. Wait until vaginal bleeding has ceased and the woman feels physically and emotionally well enough to contemplate attempting to conceive again, according to common counsel.

If a medical issue or infection is suspected as the cause of miscarriage, getting well and staying calm is critical. Waiting until hormone levels have stabilized, blood loss has subsided, and appropriate nourishment has been restored will improve your chances of carrying a successful pregnancy the second time around.

For many couples, miscarriage of a desired child may be tragic. Although it may have occurred during the early stages of pregnancy, it should not be dismissed as a trivial occurrence. It’s easy to take care of a woman’s bodily needs after a miscarriage, but it’s also crucial not to forget about her mental needs. Women who believe they require counseling can get it. Consult your doctor or a health care professional.

If you have any doubts related to pregnancy or miscarriage, you can connect with our professionals. We are just a call away or you can even book an appointment online.


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