Infertility is defined as trying to get pregnant for at least a year in spite of frequent and unprotected sex with no success. Infertility affects both male and female or sometimes both. Around 10-20 percent of couples have trouble getting pregnant or having a successful delivery.
Getting pregnant and carrying a pregnancy to term needs utmost Care. Many things may go wrong during these processes to lead to infertility. Some of the common causes of infertility in women are
Ovarian problems – female infertility is mostly caused due to ovulation failure. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. This problem occurs in 40% of women with infertility issues. The reason for not ovulating could be
- Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
- Age, low number of eggs in a woman’s ovaries due to normal aging.
- Endocrine disorders, such as thyroid disease or problems with the hypothalamus.
- Lifestyle and environment factors
Menstrual cycle – the problem may occur due to irregular menstrual cycle. For some women menstrual cycle is too long – more than 35 days, too short – less than 25 days, or absent menstrual periods – means that women are not ovulating.
Uterine problems – this could be a block in the fallopian tubes or uterus. Infertility may be caused if the fallopian tubes are blocked, if eggs are unable to move from ovaries to uterus or sperm is not able to reach the egg for fertilization. Structural problems with the uterus are those that may interfere with implantation and can also cause infertility such as Endometriosis, Uterine fibroids, Polyps, Scarring in the uterus, unusually shaped uterus.
Infections – Infertility may also be caused by infections in men and women. Untreated gonorrhea, tuberculosis, and Chlamydia in women can cause pelvic inflammation, which causes scarring that blocks the fallopian tubes. Untreated syphilis may lead to having a risk of stillbirth. Chronic infections in the cervix can also reduce the amount or quality of cervical mucus and make it difficult for women to get pregnant.
Failure of an egg to mature properly – this happens for different reasons ranging from conditions such as PCOS, obesity, lack of proteins needed for the egg to mature. The immature egg will not release at the right time or it may not be able to make it down the fallopian tubes, or it may not be able to be fertilized.
Implantation failure – the cause of implantation failure is often unknown; the possibilities could be genetic defects in the embryo, thin endometrium, embryonic defects, endometriosis, progesterone resistance, scar tissue in the endometrial cavity